Cultural heritage sustainability restoration: a quantitative method for the reversibility assessment of interventions on historical timber floor

Abstract

Restoration technology has different characteristics from mechanical, chemical, and industrial technologies. In fact, it concerns objects recognised as cultural heritage as evidence of historical, cultural, aesthetic values, which the intervention has to preserve. The observation of the damages caused by wrong restoration interventions has led to the formulation of guidelines to limit the risks of such interventions. One of the basic principles of these guidelines is reversibility: since degradation is an inevitable process, construction works will likely require restoration and functional adaptation over time. The historical timber floor is the technology system that embodies and tells the history of a building in a more reliable way: it is the most evident testimony of the technological-cultural-economic characteristics that have conditioned the design and construction of a given building in history.
In accordance with the need to preserve these historical testimonies, the study aimed to develop an innovative method for the quantitative evaluation of reversibility in the restoration and static consolidation of timber floors. The method aims to evaluate the most reversible intervention, i.e., more sustainable in terms of future revision and modification.

Immersive Virtual vs. Real Environment: a validation field-study to assess occupants’ work productivity and comfort

Abstract

In order to maximise occupants’ well-being and work efficiency, keep satisfying environmental conditions, and minimise costs and impact related to the operative and energy use, a “human-centric” approach is more and more pursued in buildings’ design and performance assessment. In this context, the use of Virtual Reality (VR) is emerging due to its advantages (low cost, repeatability, and speed of execution) compared to physical study settings. However, in Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE), it is important to ensure that data represented and collected faithfully replicate the physical environments. In order to provide a further contribution in terms of IVE validation process in the building field, this research presents results from an experimental study, where subjects’ performance tests and comfort assessments were compared in real and virtual office settings under three different walls colour layouts and two air temperature levels. “Internal”, “ecological” and “construct” validity of the IVE have been demonstrated. Findings revealed no statistically significant differences in productivity and sensation votes and in the impact of colour and temperature variables. Results then highlight a strong agreement of the two tested environments, revealing that VR is a potentially reliable tool to measure its real counterparts in terms of occupants’ productivity, perception, and behaviour under different test conditions.

Accessibility and valorisation of historical universities through digital inclusive solutions: the case study of the University of Pavia (Italy)

Abstract

The University of Pavia, established in 1361, is well known for its historical and cultural importance, also reflected in the value of its architectural heritage. It includes several ancient structures, most of which are located in the city centre. The Palazzo Centrale is the main building: its architectural complexity is due to its big dimensions and composite configuration, the result of an expansion process during several centuries. Moreover, it is one of the rare examples of “passing architecture” allowing people to cross the building from the cardo of the Roman grid of Pavia, Corso Strada Nuova, towards the eastern part of the city centre.
For these reasons, Palazzo Centrale presents several difficulties of accessibility and orientation for students, visiting academics and cultural tourists, but most of all for people with blindness or low vision.
To tackle this problem, the research team is developing a pilot project in collaboration with a specialised NGO for the installation of vocal aids helping the orientation through selected paths. The project is aimed at providing a smartphone APP able to intercept the signals emitted by small e-beacons and to receive voice information enabling users to move easily and independently through a selected accessible path. The vocal aids will use the architectural elements to characterise and describe the space, underlining not only the obstacles to be avoided but also the points of interest for historical, architectural, and academic reasons.
Once tested, this solution could be widespread also to other University buildings, creating more accessible, inclusive, and thus sustainable environments for students and tourists, in compliance with the international standards.

Methodological approach and comparative analyses for smart envelopes assessment in three different temperate climates

Abstract

Recently, innovative and responsive technologies applied to building envelopes have drawn the attention of researchers to reduce energy consumption and improve indoor environmental quality. The main feature of these systems is to react to external environmental stimuli and adapt themselves to improve the overall building performance. The spread of these technologies has promptly led to a wide range of very different new devices that have added a further degree of complexity in the energy efficiency field. This study is part of this research topic and proposes a comparison of four different responsive technologies applied to glazed surfaces of an office model located in three different Italian cities to compare their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. This comparison is conducted from both technological and energy points of view on the following selected technologies: i) electrochromic windows, ii) Phase Change Material windows, iii) dynamic automated external shadings, and iv) windows with variable thermal transmittance. The first part of this study focuses on the technology comparison – with reference to users’ control, building integration, cost, and maintenance – to highlight the main strengths and disadvantages of these systems. Hence, starting from an office reference model located in Brindisi, Rome, and Milan, dynamic energy analyses are conducted in EnergyPlus to compare the responsive systems with reference static envelopes obtaining as the final output the savings comparison between different technologies, exposures, and climates.

Demolish or Rebuild? Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Maintenance Plan for the Pro-Get-One Case Study

Abstract

It is well known that a large part of the existing Italian and European building stock needs to improve its seismic and energy performances through deep renovation projects. Both seismic safety renovation and energy rehabilitation projects have high initial costs; therefore, owners and property developers often prefer the strategy of a complete demolition and reconstruction of the building. Perhaps this can be the easiest choice, but sustainability must be assessed from an environmental, social, and economic point of view. A Life Cycle Analysis using the Global Cost method, considering initial, operating, maintenance, and end-of-life costs, can provide important information to help key players identify the best intervention strategy for the selected case.
Therefore, a strategic feasibility analysis is needed for each deep renovation building construction project to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed alternative approaches, i.e., deep renovation or demolition and reconstruction, in terms of cost and building sustainability. With the Life Cycle Cost analysis (LCC) technique, the two project alternatives have been evaluated, also with the aim of optimizing detailed design choices to minimize Life Cycle Cost. The LCC minimization plays a fundamental role in the strategic planning of the project approach, and the Cost Breakdown Structure of building maintenance activities detects the most significant elements, termed central elements, that have a major impact on maintenance costs. The optimization of maintenance costs of central elements can increase the economic sustainability of the deep – renovation or reconstruction alternative projects.
The case study of the “ProGETonE – Proactive Synergy of Integrated Efficient Technologies on Buildings’ Envelopes” has been analyzed. ProGETone is a European research project concerning a deep renovation of an existing university building via the construction of a prefabricated steel exoskeleton.

A survey form for the characterization of the historical built environment prone to multi-risks

Abstract

The historical built environment (HBE) is constantly prone to many risks causing sudden (e.g., earthquakes and terrorist attacks) or slow (e.g., climate change-related and environmental pollution) onset of emergency conditions. Morphological, physical, and constructive characteristics are critically linked to system vulnerability and users’ exposure. In particular, open spaces (OSs) in the HBE represent typical attractors for the community in urban areas for leisure and touristic purposes and critical scenarios in case of a disaster. In fact, besides daily and hourly temporalities in everyday use, OSs also play a pivotal role in the immediate disaster response phases, considering sudden-onset events. Understanding which scenarios characterize OSs is critical to evaluate them from a multi-risk perspective and to propose effective mitigation strategies in multiple critical situations. To this end, this work offers a survey form template of the OS within the HBE according to a holistic but quick-to-apply approach. Placed in the context of the Project of Relevant National Interest (PRIN) BE S2ECURe, the survey form assesses the relationships between frontier elements and those contained in the OSs, focusing on literature-based identification of vulnerability, exposure, and hazard factors affecting risk. These factors are organized into five sections as the basis for classification criteria of OSs: (1) morpho-typological, (2) geometrical-spatial, (3) constructive, (4) use, and (5) context. The application to eight case studies contributes to the validation of the survey, showing its ability to trace both the level of complexity and the main characteristics of the analyzed scenario. Furthermore, the survey form can be properly and quickly applied by non-specialized technicians, such as local authorities, thus representing the first step to support planners in data collection and risk assessment of historical OSs.

Carbonia 1937- 41. The Worksite of Autarchic Architecture

Abstract

Carbonia is one of the examples of Italian autarchy before the beginning of World War II. Some of the main national construction companies and high-level designers, of which came from the previous experiences of Fascist foundation towns, focused on the new capital of the coal district. Carbonia is the last phase of this experiment, the most important in terms of size and strategic relevance.
Carbonia’s urban scene is clearly characterized by two dominant approaches: Pulitzer’s central European modernism, which features the “First Carbonia”, and Montuori’s Mediterranean rationalism, which features the next phase of the “Great Carbonia”. Peripherality and lack of infrastructure, lack of supplies and delays in procurement, unavailability of manpower, and technical adjustments due to unforeseen events constant afflict the emergency autarchy construction site.
And while the Great Serbariu mine concentrates cutting-edge technologies at an international level, the company town continues to be built in conditions of extreme cost containment. The two parallel construction sites express technological osmosis and the driving role of innovation that the mine yard exercises over that of the city. Our long-term work commitment to reconstructing the history of the autarchic building sites through archival and field research, also documents the refined strategies of some of the most important designers of that period. They adapted their working methods to lead the process towards a unitary and high-quality outcome.

Design strategies for the recovery and enhancement of lighthouse: some case studies of the Ligurian Sea

Abstract

This paper presents the first results of ongoing research analysing some coastal lighthouses in the territorial jurisdiction of the Northern Maritime Command of La Spezia, located between the Island of Elba and the Gulf of La Spezia. The research is inspired by the “Valore Paese – Fari” initiative, launched in 2015 by the Agenzia del Demanio, with Difesa Servizi S.p.a, to promote in the real-estate market several currently disused lighthouses by granting them to overcome the management and maintenance problems. Some of the lighthouses on the Italian coasts are now affected by a gradual abandonment caused by the spread of current geo-localisation technologies and remote control and management systems. The research aims to highlight the historical and cultural importance of lighthouses, identifying possible valorisation strategies and development potential in terms of flexibility and ability to adapt to a radical functional transformation. The article firstly outlines a typological atlas of lighthouses and highlights their technical constructional characteristics. Subsequently, the design strategies of the lighthouses under study are defined for their recovery and valorisation in compliance with architectural and economic requirements. Starting from an organic and systematic classification that filled the great lack and fragmentation of available information, a detailed survey was carried out using HBIM throughout the knowledge phase, and the Value Analysis method was used to define design solutions that meet pre-established financial requirements and limits. In summary, the research shows how the lighthouse architectures are linked to the coastal context area, especially to the construction techniques concerning the different local cultures, and can lead to interesting economic and social revitalisation processes of the surrounding areas.

Digital Twinning processes for the built heritage construction site: opportunities and implementation scenarios

Abstract

This work investigates the introduction of concepts, processes, and methods of digital twinning to construction sites in the field of built heritage construction sites, analyzing the related opportunities and proposing an initial applicative framework. The presented architecture is conceived to face both the complexity of the artefact – in terms of its historical evolution, its configuration, the presence of values related to traditional construction methods, etc. – and of the activities and operations performed on its construction site, including the production, elaboration, and use of information in the different decision processes.
This paper aims to provide a theoretical, methodological, and technical base to support the design and implementation of a digital twin for a construction site within the built heritage field.

Traditional Chinese architecture: the transmission of technical knowledge for the development of building heritage

Abstract

The contribution outlines the typical elements of Chinese architecture, which combines the sophistication of technical and aesthetic details, and provides rules and criteria for the sizing and assembling standardized construction of different classes of buildings. These building elements are described in detail, through text and images, in the ancient manuals of Chinese architecture. The most significant document for its completeness and excellent state of preservation is entitled Yingzao Fashi: it was written by Li Chieh and published in 1103, after about thirty years of changes and integrations, and has been reissued several times over the centuries by different authors. This manual includes part of the contents of other earlier manuscripts, written since 700. It contains a set of guidelines resulting from the fusion of knowledge related to the theory and practice of building, respectively, transferred through theoretical texts and practical experiences. The contents of this important text were further developed and increasingly refined in other subsequent manuals (e.g., the Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli of 1734 and the Qing Shi Yingzao Zeli – Yingzao Suanli of 1934). The technical knowledge contained in these manuals allows the dissemination of down-handed practices to support the architects, artisans, and carpenters’ activity for constructing traditional works based on a wooden frame structure. The collection of drawings, tables, and rules elaborated over the centuries allows today a deeper comprehension of the genesis and evolution of the main construction elements of traditional Chinese buildings (foundations, beams, pillars, bracketing systems, roofing systems), enabling their analysis, recovery, and reconstruction.

A Modern “machine for living”. The Villa Girasole in Marcellise in Italy

Abstract

In the XX century, Italian architects experimented with the use of new European construction vanguards: concrete and steel materials for building frames, new cladding systems, and many other technologies for structures and envelopes. However, while other countries have imposed heavy economic sanctions on Italy, the Italian Government adopted an economic protection protocol to improve protectionist policies of self-production. This situation has led to the optimization of national resources and the creation of experimental models of architecture, often beyond the “limits of physics”. Villa Girasole in Marcellise (Verona, Italy) by Angelo Invernizzi is a current example of this innovation process, which has enhanced knowledge about construction techniques, domotics, and building energy systems. Villa Girasole has been described as a masterpiece of Italian Rationalism and Futurism architecture. In fact, the building can turn on itself with a revolving and circular rails system (as aeronautical engineering systems). With this movement, the building can follow the daily and seasonal orientation of the sun, improving the building’s energy performance. Moreover, the building adopted a futuristic cladding system (Alumàn), many insulating Italian materials (Eraclit), and important building systems like concrete framework (with Vierendeel beams) and steel frames. The construction and typological analysis of this masterpiece represent a necessary condition to improve the knowledge of the contemporary design process. In fact, from the heritage experience, the architects can design new building systems that follow the requirements of environmental sustainability and energy saving, with domotics systems and new building materials.

Conservation principles and structural performance of Modern heritage: the church of San Giovanni in Bosco in Bologna

Abstract

The knowledge of the design and construction practice of peculiar works that belong to the Modern heritage is an essential prerequisite for its conscious conservation.
In the transition phase between Modern Italian construction and the beginning of prefabrication in the late 1960s, a significant episode is the construction of the church of San Giovanni Bosco in Bologna between 1963 and 1969, one of the most recent, and the last Bolognese work, by the architect Giuseppe Vaccaro.
On the one hand, the church presents some technical features that confirm the construction practice consolidated during the Twentieth century in Italy, identifiable as a mixed construction. On the other, innovative elements were introduced to integrate three different structural technologies, such as load-bearing masonry walls, reinforced concrete frames and steel trusses.
The paper proposes the repertoire of the construction techniques of the church, which represents a condition of uniqueness within the local building heritage. This complexity and the particular combination of different load-bearing materials make the structural components invisible, being an obstacle for assessing the structural performance of the existing building according to traditional methods.

An eco-sustainable parametric design process of bio-based polymers temporary structures

Abstract

The primary common goal of any resource processing intervention is environmental sustainability. It seeks practical collaboration in construction technology and innovation, whether intentionally used to increase eco-friendly energy savings or implicitly used to reduce the impact of construction projects on the global environment. Biopolymers are a promising field for growth because they combine high technological potential with environmental sustainability. A viable alternative to conventional, costly, and complicated construction systems is the employment of technologies that exploit environmental sustainability concepts to create temporary modular structures that maximize manufacturing times and costs.
The paper presents an innovative process for designing temporary structures for social, cultural, and exhibition use. The present paper aims at the following objectives: (i) to illustrate a parametric approach to the design of spaces for such proposes; (ii) to study a prefabricated construction system consisting of interlocking elements to be dry assembled; (iii) to propose the use of new bio-based material. The building system originated based on these research instances targets the requirements of: adaptability, flexibility, and reversibility of spaces; prefabrication, lightness, and speed of installation and assembly; environmental sustainability and recyclability of components employed. In particular, the modules that make up the final product, characterized by vaults, are conceived as small shelters for reading and social activities.

How do visitors perceive the Architectural Heritage? Eye-tracking technologies to promote sustainable fruition of an artistic-valued hypogeum

Abstract

Sustainable strategies for Architectural Heritage reuse rely on preserving built environment features and maximizing visitors’ engagement. Occupancy issues can cause the degradation of building materials and surfaces, especially in isolated built environments, like hypogeum. The visitors’ presence affects indoor hygrothermal loads. Acceptable fruition models could provide number and timing for visitors’ access, but behavioral patterns should be assessed to evaluate if conservation-based assumptions can provide adequate users’ engagement. This work adopts technologies for detecting users’ behaviors and perception, applying it to a hypogeum characterized by high-valued reliefs on sandstone surfaces. Visitors’ numbers and times are defined to guarantee that thermal conditions do not exceed hypogeum natural fluctuations. Given this fruition model, in-situ experiments are performed to assess visitor’s perception of high reliefs and fruition patterns. Perception is investigated through a wearable eye-tracking system to point out which artifacts attract more attention and how. Fruition patterns are assessed in terms of users’ paths and engagement time in the hypogeum areas. Results show that the users’ attention is focused on better conserved and lightened high reliefs, suggesting the importance of lighting-design strategies for hypogeum reuse. The proposed fruition model can ensure satisfactory users’ engagement while guaranteeing adequate hypogeum thermal conditions.

Italian temporary prefabricated constructions (1933-1949). Projects, Patents and Prototypes

Abstract

The study considers solutions and systems for temporary and prefabricated constructions developed in Italy in the 1930s and 1940s. Companies such as L’Invulnerabile, Curtisa, Legnami Pasotti, Giuseppe Palini e Figli, Fratelli Ravelli proposed easy to assemble, changeable, and in many cases, dismountable buildings destined to the 1930s Italian and colonial markets. The survey aims to reconstruct different cases, highlighting both the premises that determined the vanguard of the post-war debate on building industrialization and the factors that constrained further developments of the pioneering phase analysed. The study starts with the V Triennale of Milan (1933) and develops in the colonial season in East Africa, enriched with applications in the Alpine areas, before finally considering some proposals that were presented at the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche exhibition on prefabricated houses in 1945 and the development of some patents by manufacturers specialised in this building sector. The buildings were intended for houses and offices of the Istituto Nazionale delle Assicurazioni and the Azienda Mineraria Africa Orientale in the colonial areas, for bivouacs of the Club Alpino Italiano, and for prefabricated houses advanced in the Second post-World War period by Società Anonima Legnami Pasotti and by L’Invulnerabile. The study, based on the clients’ archives (Istituto Nazionale delle Assicurazioni, Azienda Mineraria Africa Orientale, Club Alpino Italiano), technical documentation, and patents of the manufacturing companies, favours the examination of the production and assembly process.

Retrofitting detention buildings of historical-cultural interest. A case study in Italy

Abstract

Penitentiary buildings in Italy include many buildings of undoubted historical and architectural importance. These have been, or will soon be, subject to structural changes necessary to adapt their spaces to the current regulations of prisons.
The idea of punishment itself has changed over the centuries, so it is a physiological necessity to adapt existing buildings accordingly. When, however, such buildings date back centuries, they should not be considered a mere container but a historical testimony rich in meaning for the entire nation. The characteristics of the materials, distribution, and what these buildings have represented for the city should be the object of study and protection, whereas, at present, their historical-architectural qualities are often ignored and distorted with interventions that should often be better studied and evaluated. The article takes its cue from the description of the recovery of a Sicilian prison that was built in the early twentieth century and which is considered emblematic. The type of construction and its distribution reflect a multitude of historical meanings, as evidence of architecture too often underestimated, that of prisons. The aim of this illustrated paper is to study methods and propose solutions to safeguard these buildings that, while respecting current regulations on detention, can also let everyone in the future “read” the history of our civilization through this important architectural heritage.

Digital models for decision support in the field of energy improvement of university buildings

Abstract

According to the most recent provisions of the European Union, public buildings should play an exemplary role in sustainable development, adopting accelerated renovation rates aimed at improving their energy performance.
Within this category, university buildings are a case study of great interest to experiment with new approaches for energy refurbishment and sustain-able management of architectural assets. The research presents a work-flow that originates from easily available input data, to reach the definition of a multi-scale spatial database, founded on the synergy between GIS (Geographic Information System) and BIM (Building Information Mod-eling) and defined according to standard and shared data models. Tools of this kind are crucial for promoting efficient information management building assets, by organizing data into navigable three-dimensional mod-els. In addition to the clear benefits associated with structured archiving, the provision of a relational database makes it possible to capitalize on the already available knowledge and to activate decision support tools for comparative assessment of transformation scenarios. In particular, the use of the cost-optimal methodology is proposed: it is a multi-criteria assess-ment aimed at identifying a set of optimal energy refurbishment solutions concerning energy consumption and management costs. The paper pres-ents the methodological framework and examines its application at differ-ent scales, from the case of the University of Pavia real estate asset to the application to a single building complex.

Setting an effective User Reporting procedure to assess the building performance

Abstract

The importance of acquiring information from users to support the phases of the building process (design, construction, management and dismantling) is widely recognized by the scientific and technical community. In addition, in the era of the “Digital Transition” in building construction, participatory-sensing systems leveraging smart devices offer unprecedented observational capacity at the scale of the individual. On the other hand, data acquired by the users are typically characterized by multiple actors, many and often conflicting values and views, a wealth of possible outcomes and high uncertainty. Despite the widespread use of “user data acquisition” techniques, there are no procedures and guidelines to create effective user reported-based data acquisition in the building construction sector.
This paper proposes eight steps to set an effective User Reporting and overcome the classical drawbacks of data acquired by users for the inspection of technical and factual features. In particular, steps 1-2 a priori identify clusters of stakeholders and users to improve data homogeneity; steps 3-4 select technological tools, questionnaires and guidelines to independently acquire data from different clusters of users; steps 5-8 define the information flow, the validation approach and diagnostics. In order to show the potentiality of the proposed approach, the User Re-porting is applied to the building diagnostics of 131 RC buildings located in the Valencian coast (Spain).

Relationship between building type and construction technologies in the first Friuli Venezia Giulia hydroelectric plants

Abstract

The paper focuses on the hydroelectric plants in Friuli Venezia Giulia, especially those along the Cellina and Meduna rivers. The technological revolution of water exploitation to produce electricity led to the construction of these buildings between the 19th and 20th centuries; their different structural, technical, architectural, and engineering features became interesting case studies for such industrial heritage. The research analyzed the main features of the power plants built along the Cellina (Malnisio, Giais, Partidor, and San Foca) and Meduna (Meduno, Colle, Istrago, Chievolis, and Valina) rivers, from an architectural, formal, functional, and constructive point of view. The study of these iconic buildings, one infrastructure system related to the “waterways”, allows them to be placed within the logic of settlement and production phenomena, and by reinterpreting them in a modern key makes possible refurbishment strategies with actualized needs and functions.

Straw in the retrofitting existing buildings: surveys and prospects

Abstract

The article aims to investigate the feasibility of straw as an alternative to traditional construction materials, with particular reference to the retrofit of buildings. This paper is part of the international debate on environmental sustainability, energy efficiency, and rehabilitation of the existing building heritage and reports the results of research carried out at the Department of Architecture and Design of the Politecnico di Torino. After initial research and classification of the main construction techniques that can be used to realize straw thermal coats, a survey was started to collect opinions on the use of straw in construction from professionals and potential users.

At the same time, one on-site measurement campaign was carried out to assess the thermal transmittance of the straw insulation coat.
The different investigations – literature research, surveys, experimentation – highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of the use of straw and identified possible scenarios for its wider application in Italy.

Digital georeferenced archives: analysis and mapping of residential construction in Bologna in the second half of the twentieth century

Abstract

The study is aimed to provide a detailed knowledge database of the housing sector in the period of real estate significant expansion in Bologna in the second half of the 20th century. The final objective is the definition of a digital archive that is accessible and searchable and also a tool for analyses before interventions. The first phase of this research has focused on consulting cartographies and archival documents. On the one hand, analyzing maps and aerial photos of Bologna has identified the urban sprawl in the reference period 1940-1970. On the other hand, the cataloguing from new building permits provides some relevant data about architectural and construction features of the housing sector in the same period. The data resulting from archival research are implemented with a municipal georeferenced database using GIS software. In this way, a direct link is created between building specificities, urban fabric, and localization, so that the shifting from the urban scale to the building one is always possible. Then, another purpose is the definition of an algorithm to identify a sample of residential lots suitable for replacement within the urban perimeter of the city up to 1970. An evaluation method is currently ongoing to assess the convenience of this intervention category, rather than restoration, and to define a protocol to support the decision-making process together with a management system in three areas (technical, social, and economic) respecting circularity.

A novel seismic vulnerability assessment of masonry façades: framing and validation on Caldarola case study after 2016 Central Italy Earthquake

Abstract

An important portion of the historical built environment, which is characterized by un-reinforced masonry, is particularly vulnerable to collapse in case of earthquakes, as demonstrated by recent events. Strategies to target the facades of the most vulnerable buildings need to be tailored for retrofitting and emergency planning. In this research, a novel expeditious vulnerability assessment method, particularly suitable for historical masonry aggregates, is proposed. The method allows assessing the vulnerability index based on information available from external surveys on the building, thus facilitating and speeding up the investigation. If other more precise information (e.g., curbs and tie rods effectiveness) is available, the vulnerability estimation can be improved. The method focuses on out-of-plane mechanisms of the facade, which cause debris to fall on adjacent streets, impeding emergency response. The expeditious method is tailored starting from analytical methods applied on a large sample of historical buildings hit by earthquakes, and validated by means of comparison with kinematic analysis and observed damage state on a relevant case study, Caldarola (Macerata, Central Italy, which was struck by the earthquake in 2016). Results show a good agreement between the proposed method, the kinematic analysis, and the observed damage state of the considered case study, with 75% and 87.5% correspondence, and the method is especially precise for evaluating highly damaged facades.

The synthetic thermal insulation production chain moving towards a circular model and a BIM management

Abstract

One of the most debated issues of sustainability in the last century concerned the insulation layer, placing it at the center of technological innovation with a primary role in the design of the building shell; this change has generated an increasingly complex functional model. Its nature, morphology, and location guided the most appropriate choice: vegetable, animal, mineral or synthetic; inconsistent, panel or mat; in external, of interspace or internal position; until now, the products selection has been based on energy savings during the management phase of the building and not looking at production and disposal. This study, expanding the look at the life cycle of thermal insulators, focused on the most controversial in terms of sustainability, those of “plastic” derivation to understand with a correlative method: the trends prepared by companies to reduce “from cradle to gate” the use of fossil resources, the carbon footprint, the amount of water and energy consumed; what are the resolutions adopted to respond, with a renewed “conscious” production, to the Minimum Environmental Criteria (CAM Italian acronym) required in the Green Public Procurement (extended by virtue of state incentives also to private construction); the opening of the production system to industry 4.0 which will require a BIM (Building Information Modelling) approach for any type of intervention. After an extensive exploration to select a sample of synthetic thermal insulators, emblematic of the recent path of sustainable innovation, three investigations were undertaken aimed at highlighting: the congruity of performance of the winter and summer thermo-hygrometric profile; compliance with CAM but more extensively the attestation of their bio-ecological vocation; the conception of BIM objects for immediate use in the professional field. The results, although not homogeneous, have highlighted a great ferment in the sector, with a very promising technological level of some production lines to resolve prejudices and closures towards the synthetic thermal insulators.

Automated semantic and syntactic BIM Data Validation using Visual Programming Language

Abstract

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is part of a digitalization process that, in recent years, has been revolutionizing the way buildings and infrastructures are designed, built, and maintained. Compared to traditional processes, BIM enhances the production and the management of data related to buildings and infrastructures throughout their life cycle. It is founded on a three-dimensional graphical model based on the specificity of project goals following the “level of information need” defined in BIM procurement documents. In this framework, an automated process for checking information within a BIM model plays a role of fundamental importance. Although this increases the model’s reliability, on the other hand, it decreases the time of working. Therefore, this research aims to develop a working methodology based on Visual Programming Language (VPL) for an automated BIM Data Validation process. This workflow aims to meet the growing need of owners to centralize data relating to their real estate assets to always have the appropriate one at the operational level. This methodology has been tested in different case studies to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of using a standardization protocol in a large portfolio and complex buildings. This allows the huge amount of data from BIM models to be checked and summary reports to be produced, sharing with the various stakeholders involved in the knowledge process.

Mutations of a modern habitat. The district of Derb Jdid in Casablanca

Abstract

 

The debate on the habitat in the period of the CIAM IX of 1953 proposes a paradigm shift in relation to the recent past: overcoming “critically” the universalising approach in the conception of mass housing to focus on the analysis of the relationships and hybridisation between European modernity and the local specificities in North African countries.
This contribution proposes a study on the district of Derb Jdid in Casablanca, designed by the architect Elie Azagury. The continuous mutation of the habitat developed from local community settlements enriches Derb Jdid with a paradigmatic value in relation to the question concerning the transformation dynamics of residential areas in the contemporary city.

The Pantheon of Gaetano Cima in Guasila. Interdisciplinary studies for its structural conservation

Abstract

 

The paper presents the integrated results obtained from an interdisciplinary protocol of research designed for assessing the structural safety and state of conservation of the monument. Starting from the archival researches about the construction history and the restoration works, 3D geometric surveys, diagnostic as well as geognostic investigations have been performed for implementing the knowledge of the structures, characterised by several static problems since its construction. Overall the study has individuated the level of static efficiency of the basilic and the causes of its prolonged decay, stating a base point for the definition of future interventions.

Architecture in the second half of the 20th century: forms of expression and the “environmental issue”

Abstract

 

Numerous architectural works from the second half of the 20th century, having a recognized cultural value, turn out to be quite problematic when observed in the scope of today’s unavoidable principle of environmental responsibility. Though representing an energy “issue”, they are at the same time a “high-level witness” in the context of architecture, whose original form of expression, language, and perception must be preserved as intact as possible. This paper critically presents three interventions on architectures in Turin by Domenico Morelli that allow us to make a series of general observations concerning the relationship between preservation and adaptation of works from the second half of the 20th century.

Experimental apparatus for the determination of thermal conductivity and humidity in building materials by means of electrical permittivity measurements

Abstract

 

The on-site measurement of the thermal properties of existing building envelopes is of utmost importance to fairly accurately calculate the thermal loss by transmission to the outside environment and so to define the building overall energy performance. This paper presents a preliminary investigation concerning the use of a new indirect method for measuring the thermal characteristics of building materials throughout the year based on the analysis of the material electrical properties. The main goal is to identify a relationship between thermal transmittance, moisture content and electrical impedance through relative electrical permittivity measurements.

Learning from Finland: from circular economy to circular building

Abstract

 

The principles of circular economy begin to be essential to favor sustainable processes and Finland is one of the few countries in the world that has developed a detailed plan for its application. Indeed the SITRA world map obviously affects construction industry at different levels and benefits are described through two operational addresses: the implementation of Housing First program by the Y-Foundation, that enhance a better usage of housing building heritage in order to solve a critical social issue, and the extensive use of wood elements for building construction, that introduces new ecological innovations into a consolidated technical tradition.

Engineering and management of information modeling requirements

Abstract

 

The presented document discusses the application of Requirements Engineering and Management methods and techniques for identification and traceability of requirements to support Information Modelling during the design process. Errors and ambiguities are generally found during the briefing phase. Pre-occupancy simulation on the information model verifies the interactions among future users to meet the intended use. The information model allows to monitor the gap between expected and actual quality throughout the design process.

The renovation of the building stock in Europe: an essential opportunity to store carbon in buildings

Abstract

 

In the next decades, a large share of residential buildings in EU-28 is expected to be renovated and a large amount of insulation materials will be produced. Bio-based materials are a valuable alternative to insulate the buildings and the biogenic carbon can be stored in the built environment for a relative long time. This article investigates the effect of massively storing carbon in construction when different bio-based materials are used. The results show that only bio-based material with a very fast regrowth, e.g. straw, have an effective potential in removing carbon from the air in a very short-time, and can contribute to achieve the Paris Agreement goals by 2050.

Sustainability and innovation in constructions intended for emergency housing

Abstract

 

The research aims to give a response to the emergency housing that occurs after catastrophic events by proposing a low-cost solution through innovative constructions. The illustrated solution – based on a living module composed by four adjacent sections that can be connected to each other or to new ones – combines the concepts of minimum and affordability with those of efficiency and sustainability.

A smart village model for the Italian coastal territory

Abstract

 

Small municipalities, if taken individually, have difficulty in implementing energy policy and sustainable projects (economic, environmental and social), because they do not have sufficient financial and human resources. The idea is to regenerate a territorial area following the principles of innovation and sustainable development, that is the applicability of the concept of Smart Villages on an entire “small” territory with homogenous characteristics (similar morphology, coastal village or bordering the coast, tourism as the main business, ect.) and with several villages with less of 3000 habitants; this is the “Golfo dell’Isola” in Liguria.

Life cycle analysis and planning in the renovation process of public housing

Abstract

 

The paper presents some preliminary outcomes of the European funded research project named Pro-GET-onE, in particular life cycle analysis and planning applied to the refurbishment of existing public housing. The project regards the renovation of residential buildings through seimic rehabilitation and energy retrofitting. LCA and LCC analyses are carried out to compare different solutions and evaluate the impact of renovation in relation to demolition and reconstruction. The first results of a pilot building in Athens prove the economic and environmental convenience of the renovation approach.

Information modeling for the monitoring of existing buildings’ indoor comfort

Abstract

 

BEMS (Building Energy Management System) and BACS (Building Automation and Control System) make available a high quantity of data on consumptions, indoor and outdoor conditions and users’ profiles of a buildind that can drive the choice of energy retrofit interventions. Moreover, the current developments in the digitalization of the building process, are leading the diffusion of BIM methods and tools which can provide a valid support to manage all data and information for the retrofit process. The paper is focused on the efficient integration of these systems.

From the energy performance certificate to the building renovation passport

Abstract

 

The energy performance certificate is currently one of the main tools for mapping the energy performance of buildings. However, the recent analyses conducted on the impact of EPC on the EU construction market level have highlighted a lack of confidence in the tool, considered by most as a mere regulatory obligation with low impact on the real quality of the built environment. The objective of the document is to frame and define a new tool called building passport for the energy redevelopment of buildings, offering an overview of current European initiatives highlighting the principles, potential impacts on the market and the main obstacles.

Refurbishment in a life cycle perspective for an eco-oriented public planning

Abstract

 

The building stock refurbishment is achieving more and more energy savings goals, but the impacts associated with the building activities are not always considered: i.e. the waste’ production of construction and demolition as well as from addiction of high-tech materials. This paper describes the extension to the urban scale an already applied and developed procedure for individual buildings, which aims to maximizing the exploitation of the existing building components and materials, in a life cycle perspective. The outcome is a tool by which a first survey can be carried on an urban area to guide further refurbishment process.

The refurbishment of of prefabricated residential buildings in socialist countries (1954-1970): methodological criteria and social perspectives

Abstract

 

Prefabrication was the instrument by which European countries, both the Eastern and the Western countries, sought to cope with the growing demand for housing after the Second World War. In the Soviet Union and the socialist countries, this choice is closely linked to the construction of the communist society.
The paper analyzes the housing and construction models developed in the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and subsequently exported to Eastern Bloc countries, focusing on the Albanian case study. The survey aims to define the main characteristics of the buildings with these systems, in terms of seismic resistance and energy performance.

Rebuilt the space using stone or brick vaulted systems: catching the contemporary challenge of construction tradition

Abstract

 

In the recovery and restoration sites, as well as in the versatile word of university research about construction history, it’s not infrequent to study stereotomy for the re-proposal of stony or tiled vaulted systems, sometimes complex for their constitutive geometry, equipment, preliminary/subsidiary carpentry works. It represents a didactic study-key also in Engineering and Architecture Schools, through laboratories that teach to future designers a “know-how” that can be easily spent in their professional repercussions.

Mapping and monitoring building decay patterns by photomodelling based 3D models

Abstract

 

A framework is presented for the evaluation and diagnosis of the state of conservation of the built heritage, based on the use of virtual immersive environments and three-dimensional models, as essential tools for the analysis and correlation of diagnostic data. Thus, some early studies are presented on the application of image processing routines that might extract from the point clouds some relevant information toward the semi-automated control of cracking patterns and surface alterations in heritage buildings

“Reconstructive re-drawings” and “reconstructive models” for history of construction. The experience of SIXXI research

Abstract

 

During the SIXXI research (“XX Century Structural Engineering: the Italian Contribution”, ERC Adv Grant, PI: Sergio Poretti, Tullia Iori) special study tools supported historical surveys on works. The experimentation on tools became an autonomous research topic, developing itself from the “reconstructive re-drawing”, pioneered by Poretti in the mid 1980s, up to 3D modelling and 3D printing. This paper resumes briefly its starting and illustrates most recent outcomes, as a board field of research in Construction and Structural engineering History.

A cognitive approach for improving built environment and users’ safety in emergency conditions

Abstract

 

Cognitive Systems can be applied in architectural spaces to improve Built Environment performances basing on users’ needs. They can: 1) jointly monitor environmental conditions and human behaviours through Cognitive Built Environment (CBE) components; 2) use human-environment interaction models and related Key Performance Indicators to detect critical situations; 3) adapt CBE devices status to inform users on how to properly behave. This approach is applied to safety performances of outdoor (earthquake) and indoor (fire) scenarios, by proposing and testing solutions to support evacuees while reaching safe areas and rescuers’ support.

Effects of the digital transformation on the contemporary city project

Abstract

 

According to many sociologists and technologists today we live in the midst of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The research aims to investigate this paradigm shift that is taking place in the contemporary city to understand how urban design is facing this digital transformation. Starting from the technological and digital innovations that are pervading the field of architecture, engineering and urban planning, this study will also try to understand how these radical changes will affect citizens’ life.

The energetic characterization of solar-control environments

Abstract

 

Despite the increasingly pressing regulations in the energy sector (EPBD recast, law 90/2013 and the consequent decree 162 of 2015), which push towards policies and financial measures to promote buildings with almost zero energy, the quality of the internal environment remains one of the critical parameters on which to pay more attention in view of a consistent evaluation of the Nzeb building. The authors show, in the present paper, the results related to the energetic characterization of two test rooms, identical for surface and opaque envelope, but with different typologies of windows on the South-East and South-West wall.

Low-cost sensor network in cognitive buildings for maintenance optimisation

Abstract

 

Buildings cannot perform without a proper planning, execution and monitoring of Facility Management services. Moreover, occupancy monitor procedures for cognitive buildings are gaining momentum in performance optimization through dynamic adaption of indoor conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, shadings). In this article, the application of a similar approach for automated execution of maintenance contracts (e.g. cleaning services) is presented. This approach is allowed by monitoring occupancy, through an ultrasonic sensor network. The methodology has been validated on a case study, concerning an office building in Milan, Italy.

From building to roads. Testing road embankment with construction and demolition materials

Abstract

 

The paper reports the results obtained during an experimental research conducted in real working conditions of road embankment made with C&DW. For this purpose an experimental road, 30 m long, 4 m wide and 4 m high was built, installing 12 instruments: 3 pressure cells to measure stresses and 9 Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) to measure deformations. The data were collected under different load and traffic speed magnitude. At this point of the research data are being analysed and compared, and the results reported on this paper.

Building automation system to control natural ventilation in school buildings. The case study of “Michelangelo School” in Bari

Abstract

 

In school buildings high levels of Indoor Air Quality are required for the specific susceptibility to airborne pollution of occupants, but most of the data published in the scientific literature indicate that classroom ventilation in many schools is still inadequate. The low investment costs and the easy implementation of the Building Automation Systems allow a widely application in the existing buildings. This work studies the natural ventilation mechanisms based mainly on the stack effect of the central atrium and of the stairwells in order to design the building automation control systems.

Fire safety issues in high-rise building façades

Abstract

 

Many recent fire events demonstrate that the need of improving the technical knowledge and the practical procedures in the design of the façade systems to be used in high-rise buildings, especially for what concerns the fire vulnerability, is still very strong. Through the analysis of some case studies and examples, the paper highlights the need to investigate and solve these aspects, both in terms of detail design and materials choice, as well as through appropriate specific FSE (Fire Safety Engineering) analysis and laboratory tests.

Technological and performance issues in an intervention of retrofitting through greenery systems

Abstract

 

This research is aimed at evaluating the energy performance of an existing building in Mediterranean climate, and to assess the benefit coming from various retrofit solutions of the building envelope, such as green roof and facades. By means of dynamic simulations, validated with experimental results, the reduction in both internal air temperature and cooling load was estimated. In addition, the impact of the green shielding on the windows in terms of indoor visual comfort was assessed, and suitable soluitons were envisaged.

An integrated system for façade additions combining safe, energy efficient and user- orientated solutions

Abstract

 

This research work, as part of the Horizon H2020 project, Pro-GET-onE (Horizon 2020 GA No. 723747), aims to demonstrate the attractiveness of a renovation strategy based on new façade additions that combine integrated technologies (GET) to achieve high standards in terms of socio-economic, energy and seismic performance. This document investigates, in particular, the possible transformation of the existing building envelope with external reinforcement structures, which generate energy-efficient buffer zones and at the same time increase the volume of the building.

Construction principles of seismic and energy renovation systems for existing buildings

Abstract

Prefabricated “building systems” for the renovation of façades of existing buildings can achieve not only a physical building improvement of the envelope and thus result in lower energy consumption but also make an improvement in the resistance to seismic stress. To this end, the development of a combination of an exoskeleton and lightweight components as infill for the seismic truss system will be presented. Both a variability of the spatial appearance of the truss as well as the modularization of all construction components as a prerequisite for the prefabrication was examined and the system will be transferred into the real application by case studies as part of an H2020 research project.

Decision support tools for energy efficient and healthy school buildings

Abstract

 

Property owners are being forced to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings. Besides energy efficiency the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of a larger part of Dutch primary school buildings is insufficient. This affects the performance, productivity and health of students and staff, and additionally has monetary consequences for school boards. The inability to achieve healthy, energy efficient buildings is largely explained by a lack of knowledge and experience in building renovation by school boards. The objective of the study is to provide school boards of primary schools with decision support tools to provide more insight in the technical, financial and organizational opportunities of renovation of school buildings. It is expected that this will lead to better balanced school buildings in terms of People (Indoor Environmental Quality), Planet (energy efficiency), and Profit (costs) and will contribute to a better work and learning environment for staff and students. Applied research methods are a literature review, semi-structured interviews, desk research, expert meetings, a focus group and design. Expert meetings were organized to get input for the design ofa decision flow chart. Both were tested by members of school boards. It was found that the tools provides more insight in the renovation decision-making process and opportunities to renovate the school buildings. By raising problem awareness about the indoor environment, the decision support tools are also expected to contribute to an improved IEQ in renovated school buildings. . The research was the basis for the development of a web tool for school boards: “Decision tree sustainable renovation primary and secondary school buildings”, published by Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO), design and consultancy firm Arcadis and the ‘Green Deal Scholen’.

Energy audit and performance optimization of a residential university building in heating dominated climates of Italian backcountry

Abstract

 

The paper proposes a novel holistic methodology to design the refurbishment of educational buildings in heating dominated climates of Mediterranean regions. The proposed approach is based on the solution of a constrained multi-objective problem by means of genetic algorithm implemented in EnergyPlus. The optimization process regards energy, and environmental objectives as well as the occupants’ thermal comfort. The case study of a student dormitory of Campobasso (Italian backcountry city) is proposed. The optimal set of energy efficiency measures shows approximately 55% of the energy saved during the heating season and 24% during cooling season.

Seismic strengthening through external exoskeleton

Abstract

 

The seismic hazard in Europe is one of the most critical issues of civil engineering. The necessity of improving existing buildings, in terms of energy and structure is always a new challenge for designers. The use of integrated improvement systems can be the solution to common obstacle from the project to the realization, such as the invasiveness, the cost and the duration of the construction phase. The current scenary is rich in different intervention techniques due to the heterogeneity of the buildings. The study focuses on two cases of seismic reinforcement through the use of steel exoskeletons in different contexts through different design solutions. Following the description of the issues related to the vulnerability of the two case studies, the procedures for evaluating the improvement are illustrated. Finally, the results deriving from the application of the strengthening structures are presented, showing ample margins for improvement in both cases up to the achievement of demand values.

Retrofit through Add-ons: the ABRACADABRA strategy as an opportunity for the energy renovation of private-owned and public buildings

Abstract

 

The EU environmental and energy policies are promoting energy efficiency retrofit actions, in spite of the fact that the renovation rate in the construction sector is very low. The ABRACADABRA project aims to activate a deep renovation market through volumetric additions (add-ons), including one of the most challenging sectors, the social housing. In order to demonstrate how the densification action could be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency interventions and new business models with the scope to shorten the payback time of renovation investments (both at building and urban scale), four different buildings in different urban contexts have been analysed. The simulation made on these case studies is divided in three steps: an architectural feasibility study, an energy saving analysis and a payback time calculation; in this last phase of the study the financial assumptions are fundamental. The real estate values like the sale and the rental rate, as well as the social values were well-thought-out and combined in order to find the best opportunity for profits and the shortest payback time. Moreover, additional issues were taken into account regarding the regulatory aspects and the technical feasibility barriers for this type of approach. Implementing this strategy means to add new units on the rooftop or on the side of an existing building, and this might face obstacles, such as urban regulation restrictions and the consensus among tenants or owners. To overcome these mainly social obstacles, the project promotes new policy recommendations that public authorities could adopt and approve and also counterbalanced measures to help tenants/owners accept and embrace the ABRA strategy.

People-centred deep renovation practices: from challenges to strategies

Abstract

This paper bases its considerations from the refusal of the prevailing perception that buildings consume energy, and assumes, on the contrary, that it is actually people, that consume energy for their comfort. This means that it is necessary to identify the end users’ behaviour, actions and habits in relation to the use of energy and their way to make decisions regarding energy retrofit interventions. This should be done considering also the economic savings and the costs, health and wellbeing of people as important drivers in the decision-making process. To do so, in this paper, we will try to position the main challenges encountered by users in the deep renovation first, hence disclosing some possible strategic actions for the uptake of a people- centred revolution of the renovation market in EU.

Two Porcheddu’s quakeproof buildings in Messina reconstruction

Abstract

 

The Porcheddu Company of Turin (importer in North Italy of the Hennebique building system) was charged of 13 projects in Messi-na, after the 1908 quake: the study of the unpublished material in the Porcheddu archive, hosted at DISEG in the Turin Polytechnic sketches out two construction sites for quake-proof housings, the economical homes for the “Unione Messinese” in the Orto Botanico district, with a reinforced concrete frame and the Homes for the State Employees with pillars made of a prefabricated steel cage and on site poured concrete. The two different construction systems testify the business and law debate on quake-proof buildings.

An expeditious methodology for the seismic vulnerability assessment of building aggregates

Abstract

 

The objective of this research is the development of a protocol for the expeditous evaluation of seismic vulnerability of building aggregates in Italian historical centres, which is based on the determination of synthetic indicators to provide a preliminary assessment of their potential damage under the earthquake. The 2012 earthquake in Emilia-Romagna allowed to test the effectiveness of this method. Its application to the building aggregates of the historic center of Mirandola (MO) allowed to verify how it would have been possible to identify in advance the damage scenario recorded after the earthquakes.

For the construction an “expert” memory: the earthquake of 1818

Abstract

 

The paper highlights the progressive awareness acquired by local designers, looking for an expert memory of the earthquake. This is possible through a transversal reading of the architectural transformations and of the anti-seismic protections adopted in Eastern Sicily in pre-industrial times. The paper outlines a rapid overview of the interventions and reconstruction policies following the 18th century earthquakes. The research summarizes part of a detailed analysis of the archive documentation related to the repair and reconstruction interventions following the 1818’s earthquake in the territory of Catania (Italy). The final objective is thus to recover and analyse the design choices and the technical culture of the designers of the time.

Historic additional storeys in the cultural heritage of Palermo: critical analysis for the purpose of structural and energy improvement

Abstract

 

This paper analyses construction features and performances of additional storeys in historic buildings. The recurring characteristics of these historic accretions are investigated by focusing on the cultural heritage of Palermo, where the practice of extending buildings by raising new levels was widespread both in monumental and vernacular architecture, in public and private constructions. The performance deficiencies of additional storeys are examined in terms of structural safety, thermal comfort and building energy demand. On this basis, the utility of mapping these structures, their morphology and their location in the urban fabric is discussed.

Multi-hazard emergency management in historical centers: methods and tools for increasing mass-gathering safety in case of earthquake

Abstract

 

The use of historic city centers for touristic purposes, i.e. mass gatherings events (MEs), needs a multi-hazard approach which should jointly consider building heritage and hosted individuals’ emergency safety, by including effects of individuals’ behaviors to provide effective risk- reduction strategies (i.e.: interventions on critical Building Heritage; outdoor spaces layout reorganization; emergency management; wayfinding systems;). This work evidences the capabilities of such approach in case of MEs-earthquake emergency combinations, by taking advantaging of a validated evacuation simulator, through a case-study application.

BIM and Behavioural Simulation for existing buildings re-use design

Abstract

 

This paper presents the development of a modelling and simulation approach oriented to the prediction of possible re-use phenomena in the field of existing buildings and built heritage. Its scope is to support the complex balancing of conservation and functional requirements. The approach is based on an Agent-Based Modeling approach that includes entities belonging to the three macro areas – building, use process and users – considered.

An historical study on temporary and emergency post-disaster housing

Abstract

 

During recent years, the number of natural and non-natural disasters has drastically increased, due to the climate change, causing great damages on buildings and a high number of homeless people. However, post-disaster temporary housing solutions seem to have sustainability problems. Through a historical excursus, this work aims to analyse the steps that led to the current idea of temporary housing, in order to evaluate its functional and constructive characteristics. Finally, some considerations on improving thermal environment inside temporary housings are discussed.

Proposal of a multicriteria decision-making approach for the choice between refurbishing or reconstructing an existing building

Abstract

 

The choice to refurbish or demolish/rebuild a building requires the analysis of numerous aspects. This paper highlights the role of the main factors involved and describes the methodological approach adopted, based on a multi-criteria analysis, for the definition of a decision support index. The final part presents the results of applying the methodology to a case-study of a school building, representative of a category of buildings with recurring typological and constructive characteristics.

Experimental analysis of different multilayer insulated façade

Abstract

The presented work shows the results of the monitoring campaign conducted on two Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) test box equipped respectively with a micro ventilated facade and a thermal coat technology. Specifically, the experimental work was performed in order to compare the temperature levels of the Isotec® wall micro ventilated facade respect to traditional ETICS, with two different thermal mass, for facade insulation. The results showed that the micro ventilated façade, due to the shielding and air cavity comined effect contributes to reduce the summer heat stress with lower internal heat loads.

Towards the cognitive building: information modeling for the energy audit

Abstract

The new paradigm of smart building requires the accomplishment of occupants needs through the analysis of data gathered within the building, which switches from activities host to provider of customized services for occupants. The digitalization supports this new approach, as the implementation of Building Management Systems (BMS) in Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment allows to link the information collected to a database. The contribution is focused on a case study of the University of Cagliari, the Mandolesi Pavilion, and it is aimed at implementing and improving energy audit procedures by the use of Building Information Modelling.

Existing buildings retrofit through multi- objective optimization: a case-study

Abstract

 

In the light of the regulations on buildings energy performance, the designers face the need to choose among alternative design solutions, having to assess their effectiveness according to several -sometimes conflicting- points of view, such as the energy saving, the indoor comfort, the environmental and economic impact. This paper reports the results of the application of genetic algorithms to solve this “multi-objective optimization problem” in a building retrofit intervention in Italy. The results, even if related to a single case-study, suggest the optimal efficiency measures, whose robustness was tested in different Italian climatic zones.

High standard temporary buildings for housing emergency

Abstract

 

The project proposal consists of modular living systems made with dry technology, temporary, re-usable and energy efficient. The concepts of standardization and modular coordination are applied in order to minimize the production and execution times of the modules. The latter, taken together with the criteria of temporariness, reversibility, flexibility and energy efficiency become basic requirements for the project and allow the achievement of standards, levels of comfort and above all performances comparable to those of sustainable buildings of the latest generation.

Towards a safe school. Case studies on seismic improvement in existing school buildings

Abstract

 

The problem regarding seismic risk for school buildings has become increasingly important over the last years and national projects have been set underway to improve and adapt existing buildings to seismic risk. Many schools were built during historical periods when, even though foreseeing anti-seismic measures, were based on prerequisites different to those of today. It has become an urgent need to examine projects for a vast number of existing school buildings in relation to the important social role that they have always played.

Measuring users-windows interactions in buildings: behavioural models for the summer season

Abstract

 

Including the human component in simulation software is of primary importance to enhance the building’s design and management. In particular, the user-window interaction impacts significantly energy and comfort profiles. Through an environmental and behavioural monitoring, this research investigated windows’ opening and closing actions during the summer season in three offices. The analyses highlighted that the behaviours are influenced by both environmental factors and time-related events. Using logistic regression techniques, stochastic behavioural models have been developed to predict windows status.

Textile mills in Friuli (XIX-XX century). Building technique analysis and seismic refurbishment

Abstract

 

The conservation of industrial architectures and the refurbishment project, must take into account the growing attention to the seismic risk of the built heritage, which the recent events of central Italy have made dramatically current. The different constructive nature and structural behavior of industrial buildings, impose a different approach, combining the new functional needs – and therefore the safety of the building – with its conservation as a testimony for future generations. The work focuses the Friulian textile industry buildings (XIX and XX century), studying their constructive techniques and identyfing some guidelines for the refurbishment.

An Optimized AHP-based methodology integrated in a Decision Support System for existing buildings safety

Abstract

 

The large-scale management and monitoring of buildings is a complex issue for the heritage buildings holders. Decision Support Systems (DSS) are increasingly applied and studied in the field of building from the scientific and technical communities. Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), such as Analytic Hierarchy Processes (AHP), are widely used in building performance analysis. On the other hand, AHP are difficult to apply in building field because of the complexity of the problem. This work presents an optimized approach to use AHP integrated in the DSS and applied in the field of the safety and monitoring of R.C. buildings.

“Unsual methods”. Italian notes on Military Structural Engineering in WWII (1943-1944)

Abstract

During the SIXXI research (20th Century Structural Engineering: the Italian Contribution), new historical archives were exploited: WWII and its aftermath apperead, evitently, as importants periods for the history of structural engineering. The war for Liberation of Italy (1943-1945) was a unique occasion to test and stress structural design applied to “emergency” scope. An impressive cross-fertilization between the American methods and “know-how” of the Italian technicians featured the “fisrt aid” operations of the Alleys [This papers is framed in the SIXXI project (www.sixxi.eu), thanks to a ERC Adv Grant funding (PI S Poretti, T Iori)]

Planning emergency in historical centres: from vulnerability to the definition of urban risk maps

Abstract

 

Historical centres are high-risk scenarios for evacuees during earthquake emergency. Herein, the preventive identification of criticalities concerning the emergency paths is important to preserve evacuees’ and rescuers’ safety and design effective risk mitigation solutions. This study proposes new indices for the quick evaluation of paths’ vulnerability and of possible debris amounts blocking the evacuation paths within the historical centre. Furthermore, starting from the obtained indices, the study produces probabilistic risk maps of the centre useful before and after emergency to plan the safe paths for evacuees and rescuers, design emergency operations and resource allocation.

First elements of a research on the analysis of water leakage risk in discontinuous roofing: the calculation of vulnerability

Abstract

 

In recent decades the practice of operating after damage occurred has been replaced by planned and preventive maintenance also in building sector. In the field of built heritage management the culture of planned conservation has spread. Since water leakage from roof is one of the most common causes of damage to buildings, the study of roofing is essential. The paper presents the first elements of a research aimed at the definition of a numerical method for the analysis of the risk of water leakage from discontinuous roofing. After a general introduction to the concept of risk in this field, the general principles of the method are defined.

Structure and Language. The Enel building in Cagliari designed by Gigi Ghò

Abstract

 

The various topics of the Italian architectural debate of 1950s reveal themselves on the project of the Enel Palace of Cagliari, designed in 1957 by Gigi Ghò, Milanese engineer and architect. The reinforced concrete structure shows an interesting solution with base-hinged pillars in the shape of a “V”, and strongly influences the facades layout that, like GiòPonti, the architect considered not a design applied to a construction but an aspect of the very same structure [1]. The façade arrangement, the particular attention on the materials choice for finishes and the obsessive definition of the detail define Gigi Ghò personality.

The recovery of the former University pediatric clinics in Cagliari: a project for the reuse, environmental redevelopment and structural and anti-seismic retrofitting of a modern building in a monumental centre

Abstract

 

This paper discusses some of the issues related to the redevelopment of the modern building, with a rethink about the spaces consequent to the need to change its planned use that is structurally more burdensome and the related anti-seismic retrofitting. The case study concerns the project for the restoration and reuse of the former pediatric clinics of the University of Cagliari, according to an integrated method of intervention which, in the absence of historical documents, made it possible to reconstruct the material and structural characterisation of the building and its technical and constructional features.

Fire Safety Engineering: evacuation management in emergency conditions

Abstract

 

The disruptive events that occurred in Italy in 2016 have increased the attention to the evaluation of the evacuation procedures in emergency conditions. The strategies to adopt should be established on the basis of performance-based criteria of design and management, which are the same used in Fire Safety Engineering. In the specific case of the evacuation plan, the latter should be designed according to certain variables that may be successfully used also in other kinds of emergencies related to earthquakes or hydrogeological instability.

Timbrel vaults in Sicily. Constructive techniques and intervention methodologies

Abstract

 

Almost totally ignored by the official historical and current technical culture, both locally and in the Italian ambit, thin brick vaults actually are mostly demolished or transformed in decorative ceilings. The detailed and comparative knowledge of many cases, encouraged also by building continuity in other countries, but also the partial and total reconstructions that have occurred in recent years, allow to properly assess potentialities and limitations, the real possibility or opportunity for their maintenance, rehabilitation or re-proposal, even preserving the structural function.

Outer facade retrofitting trough precast insulation panels: method and planning tool applied to an Italian residential building

Abstract

 

Developing a more energy efficient building stock is the focus of the European energy policies. Much of the required reduction in energy consumption needs to be achieved through the renovation of existing buildings. To this topic, the work presents all the research steps from the design process, through the experimental characterization in laboratory to the final on-site construction with respective monitoring campaign for the envelope retrofitting of an Italian residential building. The developed system, result of a European founded project EASEE is a prefabricated composite panel that integrate both thermal insulation and exterior finishing.

New analytical and interpretive methods for the structural restoration of historical masonry buildings: the case of the Pietà dei Turchini Church in Naples.

Abstract

 

The critical analysis of the possible consolidations, conducted from the perspective of compliance with the principles of restoration and structural safety, arises as a necessary phase of the intervention project on historical masonry structures. The Church of Santa Maria Incoronatella della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples is a specific case on which a restoration was conducted: an original structural analysis program, based on an interpretive model in line with the actual static behaviour of masonry, is applied to better understand the crack pattern and verify the efficiency of a structural improvement aimed to mitigate the effects of a foundation settlement.

Traditional bell towers: knowledge and safety in two compared areas

Abstract

 

The paper summarizes the main aspects of the in-progress PhD research that wants to provide supporting empirical-experimental analyses, deepening the aspects that can affect structural behaviour. The research will study emblematic cases in the Etna area, after having carried out a census and a typological classification never pursued previously. To validate the obtained results, the thesis will compare these buildings with the bell towers in the Valladolid area. The comparison will check whether similar buildings (located in different geographical areas) are characterized by a different durability from that on our national territory.

Types and models of ltalian Modern Heritage. The work of Giuseppe Vaccaro in Emilia Romagna Region (1930 – 1950)

Abstract

 

The aim of this contribution is the definition of a methodology to identify the formal and functional characters to be protected in restoration works on Modern architecture. This method can become the basis for further analysis on their performance improvement, and expecially on seismic vulnerability. The identification of their constructive and structural lacks in the relationship with the historic protective restricions and regulatory adaptation can be useful to plan seismic improvement intervention as required by current legislation. The study focuses on the work of Giuseppe Vaccaro in Emilia Romagna, particularly on four architectures built between the 1930s and the 1950s, having different destinations, both public and private.

Innovative, Translucent and Multi-functional Components for the Building Envelope: technological and performance optimization

Abstract

 

The paper describes the actions aimed at the technology and performance optimization of an innovative, multi-functional building component made of precast and pre-stressed glass blocks useful for the construction of sustainable building envelopes able to reduce the energy consumption and to produce clean energy from the sun. The design optimization of different sub-components and the choice of the right materials for guaranteeing their good response in terms of mechanical resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation, light transmission, electricity production, integration with other components, dimensional coordination, are particularly described.

An innovative window with an invisible frame: from the applied research to the industrial production

Abstract

 

The results of the “Full Glass” window idea, patent and industrialization process is presented in order to commercialize it on the market. The “Full Glass” is an innovative window with an invisible frame. The aim of this work is to explain the process phases: design and optimization of the components, production costs evaluation, and construction feasibility verifying the applicability of the “technologies simplification” principle. The latter means the possibility to realize components with high performance by using a limited number of pieces than traditional ones available on the market.

Guidelines for the development of the Italian rural landscape: a pilot experience of Regione Campania

Abstract

 

Research has analysed the state of the art on the national territory, identifying three macro-categories related to national and regional regulations, current urban planning instruments and guidelines, and finally production of books, manuals, diverse contributions and the activity of Associations, Bodies, and Local Authorities. Particular attention was given to the studies resulting in practical applications or consequences in terms of planning of operational tools, for the valorisation of the landscape and the rural hamlets.

Mediterranean traditional architecture and tools for the recovery. The case study of Dellys in Algeria

Abstract

 

This contribution shows the research work carried out within the pilot projects of the Rehabimed International Consortium, for the definition of guidelines for the recovery of the historical city of Dellys in Algeria, which was almost completely destroyed by a catastrophic earthquake in the early 2000s. In order to encourage re-population, the research was aimed at the study and recognition of the morphological, typological and constructive structure characters of the traditional architecture of the casbah, in order to direct the re-qualification actions for this significant traditional and historical heritage, also taking into account the seismic criticality of the area.

Historic Building Information Modeling towards building diagnostic data management. A case study

Abstract

 

The article proposes a methodology for acquisition and management of integrated knowledge for refurbishment of architectural heritage, belonged to the Apulian construction tradition. The acquisition phase is based on historical-archival analysis and visual inspections, to proceed with the subsequent planning and execution of diagnostic surveys. Successively, the handling of information collation and archiving follows criteria of Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM), an innovative approach for coordinating refurbishment process, which, in the speciic study, contributes to the systematization of knowledge about materials, constructive techniques and residual performance levels about architectural components, limiting uncertainty of interpretation.

Innovative technical solutions for improving performance of wooden floors

Abstract

 

This paper presents an innovative technology of timber floor whose function is both the replacement of horizontal elements in historical buildings, not subject to constraints of protection, and the utilization in new buildings. The new system responds to the market demand that requires high performance characteristics in terms of stiffness in the plane, correct transmission of the horizontal actions, lightness and low thicknesses. The floor at issue is composed of two plywood panels glued in the intrados and extrados to a moulded grid panel in GFRP with a single warping of glass fibres. We want here to present the stages of study, research and design, that helped define an element considerably rigid and at the same time lightweight, trying to contain the thickness of the section. Laboratory testing phase has highlighted the increase in stiffness and flexural limitation that the coupling of the moulded grid panel with plywood panels undergoes in the different configurations.

Typological-GIS as a conceptual integration between GIS and BIM. First results on case study of Aversa

Abstract

 

This paper aims to explain the first results of a research on the application of T- GIS (Typological GIS) in the building regeneration design. T-GIS is conceived as an instrument allowing the user for a deep knowledge of built environment and so it could become an effective support in the complex building design process, also because it is potentially integrable with BIM. In fact, it might be the tool for conceptual integration between GIS and BIM. This article shows the first results of a complex and articulated work that is still in progress: the build of aT-GIS on the case study of a town called Aversa, North of Naples.

Windows use in school buildings: findings on the influence of occupants’ actions

Abstract

 

Occupants usually interact with windows to restore their thermal comfort but in spaces densely occupied, as in schools, windows also are fundamental to achieve good IAQ and avoid health hazards. Many researchers investigated the user-window interaction to identify recurring patterns but such surveys in schools are lacking. This paper investigates this relationship in an Italian classroom, monitoring occupancy, environmental parameters and adaptive actions. The proposed behavioural models are driven by indoor and outdoor temperature since they have been identified as the triggers parameters for opening and closing actions.

The buildings for the holiday in the 20 years. The “Vittorino da Feltre” colony in Matera

Abstract

 

The study aims to present the first results of a wide research carried out on the holiday constructions made in Basilicata during the Fascism, in particular on the “Vittorino da Feltre” helioterapical colony in Matera; it was built in 1937 by a design of the engineer Vincenzo Corazza. It is the only helioterapical building present on Basilicata area until today, which has not been destroyed in the decades, after the collapse of the fascist regime because it was transformed and readapted in a public school. The analysis of the archival material, the study of the state of the art and the technological characterization of the building made it possible to highlight all the typicalities of this architecture.